The Philippine National Flag

• Adopted : June 12, 1898

• Design : A horizontal bi-color of blue (royal blue) over red (scarlet red) with a white equilateral triangle at the hoist containing three 5-pointed golden yellow star gold stars at ..its vertices and golden yellow sun with eight primary rays (containing ..three individual rays).

• Designed by : Emilio Aguinaldo

• Sewn by :Marcela Agoncillo her daughter Lorenza Agoncillo and Doña Delfina Herbosa de Natividad,niece of José Rizal, the Philippines’ national hero.

  • The flag is displayed with the blue field on top in time of peace, and with the red field on top in time of war.
  • The flag’s length is twice its width, which translates into an aspect ratio of 1:2.
  • The sides of the white triangle are equal to the width of the flag. Each star is
  • oriented such that it points towards the tip of the vertex at which it is located.
  • The white triangle stands for equality and fraternity
  • The blue field for peace, truth and justice;
  • The red field for patriotism and valor

The eight primary rays of the sun represent the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain and were placed under martial law by the Spaniards at the start of the Philippine Revolution in 1896.

  1. Batangas
  2. Bulacan
  3. Cavite
  4. Laguna
  5. Manila
  6. Nueva Ecija
  7. Pampanga
  8. Tarlac

• The three stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country:

  1. Luzon
  2. Visayas
  3. Mindanao

• Flag protocol

The flag should be displayed in all government buildings, official residences, public plazas, and schools every day throughout the year.

The days from May 28 (National Flag Day) to June 12 (Independence Day) are designated as flag days, during which all government offices, business establishments, and private homes are also encouraged to display the flag.

*By law, the Philippine flag must be permanently hoisted and illuminated at night at the following locations:

  1. Malacañang Palace, the Presidential Residence
  2. The Congress of the Philippines building
  3. Supreme Court of the Philippines building
  4. The Rizal Monument in Luneta, Manila
  5. Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite
  6. Barasoain Shrine in Malolos, Bulacan
  7. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
  8. Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución
  9. All international ports of entry
  10. All other places as may be designated by the National Historical Institute.

*The flag may be flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning:

  1. Upon the official announcement of the death of the President or a former President, the flag should be flown at half-mast for ten days.
  2. The flag should be flown at half-mast for seven days following the death of the Vice President, the Chief Justice, the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
  3. The flag may also be required to fly at half-mast upon the death of other persons to be determined by the National Historical Institute, for a period less than seven days. The flag shall be flown at half-mast on all the buildings and places where the decedent was holding office, on the day of death until the day of interment of an incumbent member of the Supreme Court, the Cabinet, the Senate or the House of Representatives, and such other persons as may be determined by the National Historical Institute.
  4. When flown at half-mast, the flag should be first hoisted to the peak for a moment then lowered to the half-mast position. It should be raised to the peak again before it is lowered for the day.

The flag may also be used to cover the caskets of the dead of the military, veterans of previous wars, national artists, and outstanding civilians as determined by the local government. In such cases, the flag must be placed such that the white triangle is at the head and the blue portion covers the right side of the casket. The flag should not be lowered to the grave or allowed to touch the ground, but should be solemnly folded and handed to the heirs of the deceased.

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